Hohlfeld JM, Vogel-Claussen J, Biller H, Berliner D, Berschneider K, Tillmann HC, Hiltl S, Bauersachs J, Welte T.
Es el primer estudio que ha valorado el efecto de XOTERNA® Breezhaler® (Indacaterol/glicopirronio) en la función cardíaca de pacientes con EPOC e hiperinsuflación pulmonar observándose una mejoría significativa de la función cardíaca medida a través del volumen telediastólico ventricular Izquierdo. Estos resultados son muy importantes debido a la asociación que existe entre enfermedad cardiovascular y pacientes con EPOC, y muestra cómo la administración de XOTERNA® Breezhaler® (Indacaterol/glicopirronio) puede mejorar aspectos relevantes de la función cardíaca en pacientes hiperinsuflados.
Pulmonary hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with reduced biventricular end-diastolic volumes and increased morbidity and mortality. The combination of a long-acting β agonist (LABA) and a muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) is more effective in reducing hyperinflation than LABA-inhaled corticosteroid combination therapy but whether dual bronchodilation improves cardiac function is unknown.
We did a double-blind, randomised, two-period crossover, placebo-controlled, single-centre study (CLAIM) at the Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (Hannover, Germany), a specialty clinic. Eligible participants were patients aged at least 40 years with COPD, pulmonary hyperinflation (defined by a baseline residual volume >135% of predicted), a smoking history of at least ten pack-years, and airflow limitation (FEV1 <80% predicted and post-bronchodilator FEV1: forced vital capacity <0·7). Patients with stable cardiovascular disease were eligible, but those with arrhythmias, heart failure, unstable ischaemic heart disease, or uncontrolled hypertension were not. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either receive a combined inhaled dual bronchodilator containing the LABA indacaterol (110 μg as maleate salt) plus the LAMA glycopyrronium (50 μg as bromide salt) once per day for 14 days, followed by a 14-day washout, then a matched placebo for 14 days, or to receive the same treatments in reverse order. The randomisation was done using lists and was concealed from patients and investigators. The primary endpoint was the effect of indacaterol-glycopyrronium versus placebo on left-ventricular end-diastolic volume measured by MRI done on day 1 (visit 4) and day 15 (visit 5) in treatment period 1 and on day 29 (visit 6) and day 43 (visit 7) in treatment period 2 in the per-protocol population. Left-ventricular end-diastolic volume was indexed to body surface area. Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02442206.
Between May 18, 2015, and April 20, 2017, we randomly assigned 62 eligible participants to treatment; 30 to indacaterol-glycopyrronium followed by placebo and 32 to placebo followed by indacaterol-glycopyrronium. The 62 randomly assigned patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. There were two protocol violations and therefore 60 were included in the per-protocol analysis. 57 patients completed both treatment periods. After indacaterol-glycopyrronium treatment, left-ventricular end-diastolic volume increased from a mean 55·46 mL/m2 (SD 15·89) at baseline to a least-squares (LS) mean of 61·76 mL/m2 (95% CI 57·68-65·84), compared with a change from 56·42 mL/m2 at baseline (13·54) to 56·53 mL/m2 (52·43-60·62) after placebo (LS means treatment difference 5·23 mL/m2 [95% CI 3·22 to 7·25; p<0·0001]). The most common adverse events reported with indacaterol-glycopyrronium were cough (in nine patients [15%] of 59) and throat irritation (in seven [12%]). With placebo, the most common adverse events reported were headache (in five patients [8%] of 61) and upper respiratory tract infection (in four [7%]). Two patients had serious adverse events: one (2%) after indacaterol-glycopyrronium (endometrial cancer) and one (2%) after placebo (myocardial infarction); these were not thought to be treatment related. No patients died during the study. INTERPRETATION:
This is the first study to analyse the effect of LABA-LAMA combination therapy on cardiac function in patients with COPD and lung hyperinflation. Dual bronchodilation with indacaterol-glycopyrronium significantly improved cardiac function as measured by left-ventricular end-diastolic volume. The results are important because of the known association of cardiovascular impairment with COPD, and support the early use of dual bronchodilation in patients with COPD who show signs of pulmonary hyperinflation.
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